The principal accounting policies applied in the preparation of these financial statements are set out below. These policies have been consistently applied unless otherwise stated.
The Fund’s functional and presentation currency is the euro. All amounts are in thousands of euros, unless otherwise stated. The financial year 2016 was a normal calendar year from 1 January to 31 December 2016.
2.1 Basis of preparation
Statement of compliance
In accordance with Part 9, Book 2 of the Dutch Civil Code, Section 362, subsection 8, the financial statements of the Fund have been prepared in accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) as adopted by the European Union. The financial statements of the Fund presented are also in accordance with Part 9, Book 2 of the Dutch Civil Code based on Section 362, subsections 8 and 9.
In December 2016 the Fund established a taxable subsidiary, Bouwinvest Dutch Institutional Residential Fund Services B.V., and this subsidiary is not consolidated due to the fact that the revenues, costs and assets, equity and liabilities are negligible.
Statement of comprehensive income
The Fund presents its statement of comprehensive income by nature of expenses.
Change in accounting policies
In 2016, the Fund changed the 'Statement of cash flows' to the indirect method whereas in prior years the 'Statement of cash flows' was reported according to the direct method. The fund changed the preparation to the indirect method, whereby the net result of the statement of comprehensive income is adjusted for the effects of:
non-cash items such as valuation movements
changes during the period in inventories and operating receivables and payables
cash effects relating to investment activities
cash effects relating to finance activities
The changes to the indirect 'Statement of cash flows' is retrospectively adjusted so the comparative figures 2015 are adjusted. The Fund decided to report according to the indirect 'Statement of cash flows' whereas it reconciles directly with the accounting records of the Fund. There is no impact on the equity or the net result for the year 2016 and 2015.
Application of new and revised International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS)
In 2016, the Fund did not adopt any new or amended standards and does not plan the early adoption of any of the standards issued but not yet effective.
Below is a list of the amendments to IFRSs and the new Interpretations that are mandatorily effective for accounting periods that begin on or after 1 January 2016.
Amendments to IFRS 10, IFRS 12 and IAS 28: Investment Entities – Applying the Consolidation Exception;
Amendments to IAS 27: Equity Method in Separate Financial Statements;
Amendments to IAS 1: Disclosure Initiative;
Annual Improvements to IFRSs 2012–2014 Cycle;
Amendments to IAS 16 and IAS 38: Clarification of Acceptable Methods of Depreciation and Amortisation;
Amendments to IFRS 11: Accounting for Acquisitions of Interests in Joint Operations; and
Amendments to IAS 16 and IAS 41: Bearer Plants.
The application of these amendments has had no material impact on the disclosures in the Fund’s financial statements.
New and amended standards and interpretations, effective for financial years beginning on or after 1 January 2017
Standards issued but not yet effective
Standards issued but not yet effective up to the date of the issuance of the Fund’s financial statements are listed below:
IFRS 15 Revenue from Contracts with Customers including amendments to IFRS 15, effective 1 January 2018;
IFRS 9 Financial Instruments, effective 1 January 2018.
The Fund has studied the improvements and is currently assessing their impact.
New and amended standards and interpretations not yet adopted by the European Union
The standards, amended standards and interpretations that have not yet been adopted by the European Union are not yet being applied by the Fund.
IFRS 16 Leases;
Amendments to IAS 12: Recognition of Deferred Tax Assets for Unrealised Losses;
Amendments to IAS 7: Disclosure Initiative;
Clarifications to IFRS 15 Revenue from Contracts with Customers;
Amendments to IFRS 2: Classification and Measurement of Share-based Payment Transactions;
Amendments to IFRS 4: Applying IFRS 9 Financial Instruments with IFRS 4 Insurance Contracts;
Annual Improvements to IFRS Standards 2014-2016 Cycle;
IFRIC Interpretation 22 Foreign Currency Transactions and Advance Consideration; and
Amendments to IAS 40: Transfers of Investmenty Property.
The Fund has studied the improvements and is currently assessing their impact.
Preparation of the financial statements
The financial statements have been prepared on the historical cost basis except for investment property and investment property under construction, which are measured at fair value as explained in the accounting policies below. Historical cost is generally based on the fair value of the consideration given in exchange for assets. The principal accounting policies are set out below.
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with IFRS requires the use of certain critical accounting estimates. It also requires management to exercise its judgement in the process of applying the Fund’s accounting policies. Changes in assumptions may have a significant impact on the financial statements in the period the assumptions changed. Management believes that the underlying assumptions are appropriate. The areas involving a higher degree of judgement or complexity, or areas where assumptions and estimates are significant to the financial statements, are disclosed in Note 4.
2.2 Investment property
Investment property that is under construction or being developed for future use as investment property is presented under ‘Investment property under construction’.
Land held under operating leases is classified and accounted for by the Fund as investment property when it meets the rest of the definition of investment property and is accounted for as a finance lease.
Investment property is measured initially at its cost, including related transaction costs, such as advisory costs, notary costs, transfer taxes and borrowing costs. Borrowing costs incurred for the purpose of acquiring, constructing or producing a qualifying investment property are capitalised as part of its cost. Borrowing costs are capitalised while acquisition or construction is actively underway and cease once the asset is substantially complete, or suspended if the development of the asset is suspended.
After initial recognition, investment property is stated at fair value. Fair value is based on active market prices, adjusted, if necessary, for any difference in the nature, location or condition of the specific asset.
In line with the Practice Statements, as incorporated in the Royal Institute of Chartered Surveyors Appraisal and Valuation Standards (‘the Red Book’), valuations are performed as of the financial position date by professional valuation experts who hold recognised and relevant professional qualifications and have recent experience in the location and category of the investment property being valued. These valuations form the basis for the carrying amounts in the financial statements. Investment property that is being redeveloped for continuing use as an investment property or for which the market has become less active continues to be measured at fair value.
The fair value of investment property reflects, among other things, rental income from current leases and assumptions about rental income from future leases in the light of current market conditions, including vacancy and rental incentives. The fair value also reflects, on a similar basis, any cash outflows that could be expected in respect of the property. Some of those outflows are recognised as a liability, including finance lease liabilities in respect of leasehold land classified as investment property; others, including contingent rent payments, are not recognised in the financial statements.
Subsequent expenditure is capitalised to the asset’s carrying amount only when it is probable that future economic benefits associated with the expenditure will flow to the Fund and the cost of the item can be measured reliably. All other repairs and maintenance costs are expensed when incurred. When part of an investment property is replaced, the carrying amount of the replaced part is derecognised.
If a valuation obtained for a property held under a lease is net of all payments expected to be made, any related lease liability recognised separately in the statement of financial position is added back to arrive at the carrying value of the investment property for accounting purposes.
The fair value of investment property does not reflect future capital expenditure that will improve or enhance the property and does not reflect the related future benefits from this future expenditure other than those a rational market participant would take into account when determining the value of the property.
Gains and losses arising from changes in fair values are included in the statement of comprehensive income in the year in which they arise. Investment properties are derecognised either when they have been disposed of or when the investment property is permanently withdrawn from use and no future economic benefit is expected from its disposal. Gains and losses on disposal of investment properties are recognised in the statement of comprehensive income in the year of disposal.
2.3 Investment property under construction
Investment property under construction for future use as investment property is stated at fair value.
Fair value measurement on investment property under construction is only applied if the fair value is considered to be reliably measurable. If the Fund determines that the fair value of an investment property under construction is not reliably determinable when construction is incomplete, it shall measure that investment under construction at cost until either its fair value becomes reliably determinable or construction is completed. It may sometimes be difficult to determine the fair value of the investment property under construction reliably. In order to evaluate whether the fair value of an investment under construction can be determined reliably, management considers, among others, the following factors:
The provisions of the construction contract
The stage of completion
Whether the project/property is standard (typical for the market) or non-standard
The level of reliability of cash inflows after completion
The development risk specific to the property
Past experience with similar construction projects
Status of construction permits
After the first instalment for the project under construction, an external valuation expert values the project each quarter. Gains and losses arising from changes in fair values are included in the statement of comprehensive income in the year in which they arise.
The Residential Fund has an agreement with Bouwinvest Development B.V. Investment property is not developed within the Residential Fund but within Bouwinvest Development B.V. When entering into the contract, the rental risk is transferred to the Fund; the remaining risks remain with the developer. The paid instalments are therefore recognised as investment property under construction.
2.4 Financial instruments
Financial assets are classified as financial assets at fair value through profit or loss, loans and receivables, held-to-maturity financial assets, and available-for-sale financial assets, as appropriate. The Fund determines the classification of its financial assets at initial recognition. When financial assets are initially recognised, they are measured at fair value, plus, in the case of investments not at fair value through profit or loss, directly attributable transaction costs. Financial assets are derecognised only when the contractual rights to the cash flows from the financial asset expire or the Fund transfers substantially all risks and rewards of ownership. The Fund’s financial assets consist of loans and receivables.
Financial assets recognised in the statement of financial position as trade and other receivables are classified as loans and receivables. They are recognised initially at fair value and subsequently measured at amortised cost using the effective interest method, less provision for impairment.
The Fund assesses at each financial position date whether there is objective evidence that a financial asset or group of financial assets is impaired. If there is objective evidence (such as significant financial difficulty of the obligor, breach of contract, or it becomes probable that the debtor will enter bankruptcy), the asset is tested for impairment. The amount of the loss is measured as the difference between the asset’s carrying amount and the present value of estimated future cash flows (excluding future expected credit losses that have not been incurred) discounted at the financial asset’s original effective interest rate (that is, the effective interest rate computed at initial recognition). The carrying amount of the asset is reduced through use of an allowance account. The amount of the loss is recognised in the statement of comprehensive income.
With respect to trade receivables, a provision for impairment is made when there is objective evidence (such as the probability of insolvency or significant financial difficulties of the debtor) that the Fund will not be able to collect all of the amounts due under the original terms of the invoice. Impaired debts are derecognised when they are assessed as uncollectible.
If in a subsequent period the amount of the impairment loss decreases and the decrease can be related objectively to an event occurring after the impairment was recognised, the previously recognised impairment loss is reversed, to the extent that the carrying value of the asset does not exceed its amortised cost at the reversal date. Any subsequent reversal of an impairment loss is recognised in the statement of comprehensive income.
Financial liabilities are classified as financial liabilities at fair value through profit or loss, loans, held-to-maturity financial liabilities, and available-for-sale financial liabilities, as appropriate. The Fund determines the classification of its financial liabilities at initial recognition. When financial liabilities are initially recognised, they are measured at fair value, plus, in the case of investments not at fair value through profit or loss, directly attributable transaction costs.
A financial liability is derecognised when the obligation under the liability is discharged or cancelled or expired.
Financial liabilities included in trade and other payables are recognised initially at fair value and subsequently at amortised cost. The fair value of a non-interest bearing liability is its discounted repayment amount. If the due date of the liability is less than one year, discounting is omitted.
Prepayments are stated at cost less any accumulated impairment losses.
2.6 Cash and cash equivalents
Cash and cash equivalents include cash in hand, deposits held at call with banks, other short-term highly liquid investments with original maturities of three months or less, and bank overdrafts.
2.7 Issued capital
Shares are classified as equity when there is no obligation to transfer cash or other assets. Incremental costs directly attributable to the issue of new shares are shown in equity as a deduction, net of tax, from the proceeds.
2.8 Trade and other payables
Trade and other payables are recognised initially at fair value and subsequently measured at amortised cost using the effective interest method.
The Residential Fund obtains deposits from tenants as a guarantee for returning the property at the end of the rental term in a specified good condition or for the rent payments for a period ranging from 1 to 12 months. Such deposits are treated as financial assets in accordance with IAS 39 and they are initially recognised at fair value. The deposit is subsequently measured as amortised cost.
Tenant deposits are classified as current liabilities, unless the Fund has an unconditional right to defer settlement of the deposit for at least 12 months after the date of the statement of financial position.
2.9 Dividend distribution
An FII is obliged to distribute its distributable profit annually within eight (8) months after the end of the relevant fiscal year (doorstootverplichting). The distributable profit generally only includes current income (dividends, interest and rental income). The (realised and unrealised) gains on securities and the realised gains on all other investments (including real estate), which are added to a so-called reinvestment reserve (herbeleggingsreserve), are not included in the distributable profit.
2.10 Rental income
Rental income from investment property leased out under operating leases is recognised in the statement of comprehensive income on a straight-line basis over the term of the lease. Rent incentives granted by the Fund to its tenants are recognised as an integral part of the total rental income. The rent incentives are included in the investment properties.
Incentives to enter into rental agreements are spread evenly over the rental term, even if the payments are not made on such a basis. The rental term is the non-cancellable period of the rental agreement, together with any further term for which the tenant has the option to continue the rental agreement, when at the inception of the rental agreement it is reasonably certain that the tenant will exercise this option.
Premiums received to terminate rental agreements are recognised in the statement of comprehensive income.
2.11 Service charges, property operating expenses and administrative expenses
In the case of service contracts with third parties, service charges are recovered from tenants. Service charges in respect of vacant property are expensed. These mainly relate to gas, water, electricity, cleaning and security.
Property operating expenses comprise those costs that are directly attributable to the operation of properties, net of costs charged to tenants. These mainly relate to tax, insurance, leasehold, maintenance and professional fees. These are expensed as incurred. Administrative expenses are expenses that are not directly attributable to the operation of properties (including charged management costs not directly related to properties, office overheads, advice, valuation and audit fees, listing costs and marketing and promotion costs).
Service charges for which the Fund acts as a principal are presented in the statement of comprehensive income. Therefore, for those property investments for which the Fund is in full control of the service charges, the service charges invoiced to tenants and the corresponding expenses are shown separately on an accrual basis.
2.12 Other income
Income attributable to the year that cannot be classified under any of the other income categories.
2.13 Finance income and expenses
Finance income consists of interest income and is recognised in the statement of comprehensive income. Interest income is recognised in the statement of comprehensive income as it accrues.
2.14 Cash flow statement
Cash flows are stated according to the indirect method.
The acquisitions of investment properties are disclosed as cash flows from investment activities, as this reflects the Fund’s business activities most appropriately.
Cash and cash equivalents comprise cash on hand, demand deposits, short-term deposits in banks with original maturities of three months or less and short-term, highly liquid investments that are readily convertible to known amounts of cash and which are subject to an insignificant risk of changes in value.
2.15 Earnings per share
The Fund presents basic and diluted earnings per share (EPS) for its ordinary share capital. The earnings per ordinary share are calculated by dividing the profit or loss attributable to the Fund’s shareholders by the weighted average number of issued ordinary shares during the reporting period. In calculating the diluted earnings per share, the profit or loss attributable to the Fund’s shareholders and the weighted average number of issued ordinary shares during the reporting period are adjusted for all potential dilutive effects on the ordinary shares.
2.16 Income taxes
Based on its status as an FII , the Fund is subject to Dutch corporate income tax at a rate of 0%. See Note 10.